SEXUALLY TRANSMITTED INFECTIONS

SEXUALLY TRANSMITTED INFECTIONS
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These diseases are spread from person to person via oral or vaginal or anal sex. Many of them aren’t curable but all of these diseases are preventable with minimal measures. There are nearly 38 types of infections that are spread sexually which include bacterial, viral, parasites. Bacterial infections are curable whereas viral infections aren’t curable.

Bacterial infections include gonorrhea, chlamydia, syphilis.

Viral infections include Human Papillomavirus( HPV), Herpes simplex virus (HSV), Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV).

Going to elaborate a few common STI’s  in brief

SYMPTOMS

Gonorrhea

Common symptoms –

  • Thick or bloody discharge from the genital opening
  • painful urination
  • burning sensation while urinating.

Women

  • Bleeding in between periods.

Men

  • Swelling and pain in testis

Chlamydia

Bacterial infection and symptoms are the same as that of Gonorrhoea.

The above-mentioned infections coexist usually.

Syphilis

A bacterial infection and it’s a re-emerging condition and occurs in three stages

Primary stage – You can see small painless sore or ulcers in the genital area, mouth, or anal region. The chances of spread from person to person is too high so that one needs to take care during sex.

Secondary stage – Skin rashes are seen. These aren’t itchy and usually seen in palms and soles but can be seen in any part without exception. Other symptoms include enlargement of lymph nodes, fever, headache, joint pains.

Tertiary stage – Takes 3-4 years to enter into this stage. It involves various organs ie heart, nervous system  ( stroke, mental illness, memory issues, meningitis), bone problems.

HIV ( Human Immunodeficiency virus)

It is one of the dangerous infections transmitted sexually and this primarily affects the immune system. Treatment is just symptomatic but it’s not curative. If you once get infected with HIV your body will be the gate for 100’s of opportunistic infections. This effects every system in the body and symptoms are vague.

SYMPTOMS

  • Severe muscle cramps
  • Fever of unknown origin
  • Weightloss
  • Recurrent sore throat
  • Recurrent oral or mouth ulcers
  • Menstruation issues
  • Frequent Nausea and vomiting
  • Diarrhea
  • Malaise
  • Neuropathy
  • Endocrine disorders
  • Vitamin deficiency
  • Lymph node enlargement.
  • Many other symptoms according to the system involved.

Opurtunistic infections

These diseases don’t affect healthy individuals but they effect one with poor immunity.

Some of them are

  • Tuberculosis – the most common infection.
  • Candidiasis or oral thrush
  • Herpes simplex virus infection
  • Cancers caused by various viruses
  • Pneumonia
  • Meningitis
  • Bronchitis
  • Hepatitis
  • Various other infections

HPV

Most common infection and usually it’s asymptomatic. If symptoms are seen then they will be

  • Fleshy outgrowths in genital region or warts.
  • Itching in the genital region.

It’s a precancerous lesion i.e it leads to cancer if untreated.

HSV –  A viral infection that causes genital herpes and the following symptoms are seen

  • Painful fluid-filled sacs seen in the genital region and cause a burning sensation while urinating if urine touches.
  • Itching, tingling sensation in the affected area.

NOTE – All these infections are transmitted vertically i.e transmitted from mother to child which causes complications to the child. So never hesitate to share this with your Obstetrician if you are pregnant and you have any of these.

Also Read How to Improve Sex Life

DIAGNOSIS

1. Urine test

2. Blood tests

3. Fluid is drained and tested in case of any lesions on the body.

4. Skin scrapping in case of rashes or lesions.

TREATMENT

In case of bacterial infections specific antibiotics are prescribed and for viral infections antiviral drugs are used or management of symptoms.

Both partners are treated for the infection.

PREVENTION

Latex or nonlatex condoms are the best way.

Avoiding sex if you have symptoms.

Having only one sexual partner.

Maintaining personal hygiene

So please take care of yourself and your partners. Rather than hiding your condition go and talk to your doctor because it’s not something you need to hide and suffer for a lifetime.

 

 

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