Series of processes or changes that take place in women when sperm fertilizers with an egg after it is released from the ovary. The entire process takes around 266-270 days or 40 weeks or 9 months. Egg travel to the uterus where the implantation occurs. Women receiving good care during their pregnancy time period delivers a healthy baby.
Initiation of pregnancy
When sperm and egg or ovum fertile a new individual is created but before that sperm and egg have to travel quite far to achieve union. Active number of sperm are deposited in the vagina and travel to the uterus and conquer the fallopian tube and surrounds the ovum. When the ovum loses the outer layer it allows sperm to penetrate through the walls to the egg surface. Once the sperm enters into the ovum it separates its tail and keeping its nuclear head which only survives and its tails disappear. It enlarges as it travels towards the ovum nucleus. At the center of the ovum two, the two pronuclei meet where chromatin material organizes into chromosomes.
Females have 2 chromosomes(X, X) and 44 autosomes, and the same number of autosomes are found in males and the same number of chromosomes(X, Y). Aa cell division process happens just before the fertilization with reduces the number of autosomes to 23 in male and female and one chromosome each for female(X) and male(X or Y). After they merged they get divided by the process called mitosis. The fertilized ovum which is also called zygote divides into daughter cells of two equal size. Each daughter cells receive 44 autosomes of the mitotic division. Each daughter cell has either 2 X chromosomes making the new individual female or X and Y making the individual male. The process of fertilization occurs in the uterus tube but the time of the zygote is not known but it travels tube and reaches the uterine cavity about 72 hours after fertilization. When it reaches the uterus it is in its solid mass form which is called a morula. Morula is a combination of cells and as the number of cells increases, it forms a bubble-like structure called a blastocyst.
Symptoms of pregnancy
- Missed Period: It is one classic sign that you may be pregnant but not the exact one because the period cycle tends to change maybe of health issues or other factors that may have caused the irregularity in the period.
- Headache: In the increased blood volume and altered hormone levels headaches are very common in the early stages of the pregnancy. One should consult a doctor if it is too painful.
- Spotting: During the implantation which happens one or two weeks after the fertilization women tend to experience light bleeding which is also called sporting. Bleeding can also be due to infection or irritation. It is also a sign of complication or miscarriage.
- Weight Gain: Women will tend to gain weight approx 1-4 pounds during the first few months but increase and become noticeable during the second trimester.
- Constipation: Due to the hormonal change in the early stages of the pregnancy it can slow down the digestive system.
- Cramps: When muscles of uterus stretches and expands one may feel the pulling sensation that resembles that of menstrual cramps. If cramps and spotting occur alongside it could be a sign of miscarriage.
- Back Pain: Due to an increase in the weight the center of the gravity will add pain in the back and also due to the hormonal change and stress on the muscles will cause back pain in the early stage of the pregnancy.
- Anemia: Chances of anemia may increase for pregnant women with symptoms like dizziness. This condition may lead to premature birth and low weight of the baby.
- Breast Change: The most noticeable changes that one will see during the pregnancy is breast. Breast tends to become swollen and generally heavy and nipples may also become larger and more sensitive.
- Vomiting: It is one of the common things that happen within the first four months of the pregnancy and happens due to the hormonal change.
- Diarrhea: Hormonal change and different diet can cause diarrhea which can be seen in the early stage of pregnancy if it remains for more than a few days one should contact a doctor as it may lead to dehydration.
Pregnancy week by week
The first trimester is from week 1-12 in this period baby grows very rapidly where the brain, spinal cord, and other organs start to develop in the fetus. Baby heart also beat starts to beat in the first trimester time frame. Chances of the miscarriage is also high during this period of time.
The second trimester is from week 13-27 where the doctor will do the ultrasound to check any abnormality in the fetus body this test can also reveal the sex of the baby if wish to know before the baby is born. In this phase, women will feel the kick and punching of the baby in the uterus. After 23 weeks the baby is viable means it can survive outside of the womb but the baby born early has a serious medical issue.
The third trimester is from week 28-40 where babies can sense light, bones are developed and babies can open and close eyes. For the mother, weight tends to increase rapidly, feel tired and feet may get swollen. Branton-Hicks contraction start to happens just before the delivery week.
Natural Pregnancy Test
- Salt Pregnancy Test:
- Method: Take urine in a glass and add a pinch of salt in it.
- Positive Sign: If a creamy white clumps are formed from the reaction that means you are pregnant.
- Negative Sign: No reaction means you are not pregnant.
- Sugar Pregnancy Test:
- Method: Take urine in a bowl and sugar to the bowl.
- Positive Sign: If sugar form lumps in urine means you are pregnant.
- Negative Sign: Is sugar dissolve means you are not pregnant.
- Baking Pregnancy Test:
- Method: Take urine in a cup and add baking soda in it.
- Positive Sign: If in the reaction of two causes bubbles and fizz then one should consider pregnant.
- Negative Sign: No reaction means you are not pregnant.
- Storing Pregnancy Test:
- Method: Take urine in a glass jar and keep the sample away for 24 hours.
- Positive Sign: If a thin layer is formed on the surface of the sample then you are pregnant.
- Negative Sign: Absence of any means you are not pregnant.
Home Pregnancy Tests
A chemical stick can be used for the pregnancy test when missed the period on the very first day. This test detects the hormone gonadotropin (hCG) in your urine which only found during the pregnancy. The stick changes color when the hormone comes into the contact and the waiting time is around 10min to show the accurate result. HPT is inexpensive and advised to take twice as hCG is too weak in the early stage which may give you false reports if some missed her period and it doesn’t arrive in few days the one can test again or may consult the doctor for the same.
Clinical Urine Test
The doctor conducts a test of the urine at their facility. These are expensive than HPT and not necessarily more accurate. One can expect the result within a week after the test.
A blood test is performed to test the hCG in the blood by the doctor in his office. Blos tests are expensive that HPT and can take time weeks or two to provide the result. There are two types of pregnancy test:
- Qualitative hCG blood test: It checks if any hCG is produced in the body. It give yes or no as the result of the pregnancy test.
- Quantitative hCG blood test: This measures the specific level of hCG in the blood.
Foods to Eat When You’re Pregnant
Dairy Product: As the pregnancy months go on the fetus grows and to meet with that one should have extra protein in the diet on a regular basis. Dairy products are a rich source of vitamins, calcium, and zinc. Yogurt is especially beneficial for pregnant women.
Legumes: It includes lentils, peas, chickpeas, and soybeans. They are an excellent source of fiber, protein, iron, calcium all of which required things during the pregnancy. During the pregnancy, folate is very important as it reduces the risk of some birth defects and diseases.
Sweet Potatoes: During the pregnancy period women are asked to increase their intake of vitamin A by 10-40% so sweet potatoes can come into rescue as they are sources of vitamin A. It consists of beta-carotene a plant compound which will convert into vitamin A into the body. It is also advised not to take animal-based vitamin during pregnancy as it may cause toxicity when taken in excess.
Eggs: Eggs contain all the essential nutrients that one is looking for. An egg contains calories, protein, and fats plus many vitamins and minerals. It is also a great source of Choline which very essential during pregnancy a deficiency of choline may risk of neural tube defects and may lead to decrease brain function in the fetus.
If one is not ready to get pregnant then one should use prevention to consider birth control. One can ask the doctor for the birth control according to the condition of the women. Most common birth control methods are:
They are currently the most effective way to stop fertilization and for birth control but the disadvantage that they have is that they do not prevent sexually transmitted diseases.
Birth Control Pill
It patches the vaginal ring by controlling the level of the hormone of the woman body. These are provided on the prescription of the consulting doctor. They’re ineffective when they are not taken as prescribed.
Use Of Condoms and other Barrier methods
The most inexpensive and that can be bought without any prescription are Condoms, Diaphragms, and Sponges. These are a more convenient way for birth control and are used and effective when used correctly during the sexual intercourse.
Many times people do unprotected sex when they forgot to use a regular form of birth control for this morning pills are there which can be bought on prescription advised by the doctor. They must be used within 120 hrs of sexual contact to effective but most effective when taken within 72hrs.
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